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NeurologyDoctors who treat epilepsy come from many different fields of medicine. They include neurologists, pediatricians, pediatric neurologists, internists, and family physicians, as well as neurosurgeons and doctors called epileptologists who specialize in treating epilepsy. People who need specialized or intensive care for epilepsy may be treated at large medical centers and neurology clinics at hospitals or by neurologists in private practice. Many epilepsy treatment centers are associated with university hospitals that perform research in addition to providing medical care.
AutismEpilepsy is associated with a variety of developmental and metabolic disorders, including cerebral palsy, neurofibromatosis, pyruvate dependency, tuberous sclerosis, Landau-Kleffner syndrome, and autism. Epilepsy is just one of a set of symptoms commonly found in people with these disorders.
Multiple SclerosisMultiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, potentially debilitating disease that affects your brain and spinal cord (central nervous system). The illness is probably an autoimmune disease, which means your immune system responds as if part of your body is a foreign substance.In MS, your body directs antibodies and white blood cells against proteins in the myelin sheath surrounding nerves in your brain and spinal cord. This causes inflammation and injury to the sheath and ultimately to your nerves. The result may be multiple areas of scarring (sclerosis). The damage slows or blocks muscle coordination, visual sensation and other nerve signals.The disease varies in severity, ranging from a mild illness to one that results in permanent disability. Treatments can modify the course of the disease and relieve symptoms.An estimated 400,000 Americans have MS. It generally first occurs in people between the ages of 20 and 50. The disease is twice as common in women as in men.
EpilepsyFew experiences match the drama of a convulsive seizure. A person having a severe seizure may cry out, fall to the floor unconscious, twitch or move uncontrollably, drool, or even lose bladder control. Within minutes, the attack is over, and the person regains consciousness but is exhausted and dazed. This is the image most people have when they hear the word epilepsy. However, this type of seizure -- a
ImmunizationsKeep your child's immunizations up-to-date. This includes your child's pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. CF doesn't affect the immune system, but children with CF are more likely to develop complications when they become sick.
ArthritisCertain diseases can affect bone, such as endocrine disorders (hyperthyroidism, hyperparathyroidism, Cushing's disease, etc.) and inflammatory arthritis (rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, etc.)
Weight ManagementAlthough people with diabetes can prevent or delay complications by keeping blood glucose levels close to normal, preventing or delaying the development of type 2 diabetes in the first place is even better. The results of a major federally funded study, the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP), show how to do so. This study of 3,234 people at high risk for diabetes showed that moderate diet and exercise resulting in a 5- to 7-percent weight loss can delay and possibly prevent type 2 diabetes.
Nutritional CounselingPublications produced by WIN are carefully reviewed by both NIDDK scientists and outside experts. This fact sheet was also reviewed by Thomas Wadden, Ph.D., Director, Weight and Eating Disorders Program, University of Pennsylvania, and Goulda Downer, Ph.D., President, Metroplex Health and Nutrition Services.
Primary CareIn addition to the primary care physician, pulmonologists, neurologists, or other physicians with specialty training in sleep disorders may be involved in making a definitive diagnosis and initiating treatment. Diagnosis of sleep apnea is not simple because there can be many different reasons for disturbed sleep. Several tests are available for evaluating a person for sleep apnea. Polysomnography is a test that records a variety of body functions during sleep, such as the electrical activity of the brain, eye movement, muscle activity, heart rate, respiratory effort, air flow, and blood oxygen levels. These tests are used both to diagnose sleep apnea and to determine its severity. The Multiple Sleep Latency Test (MSLT) measures the speed of falling asleep. In this test, patients are given several opportunities to fall asleep during the course of a day when they would normally be awake. For each opportunity, time to fall asleep is measured. People without sleep problems usually take an average of 10 to 20 minutes to fall asleep. Individuals who fall asleep in less than 5 minutes are likely to require some treatment for sleep disorders. The MSLT may be useful to measure the degree of excessive daytime sleepiness and to rule out other types of sleep disorders. Diagnostic tests usually are performed in a sleep center, but new technology may allow some sleep studies to be conducted in the patient's home.
Smoking CessationCOPD results primarily from smoking tobacco. Years of smoking cause damage to the airways in the lungs. This lung damage continues to progress with the use of tobacco. Average current and former smokers will likely not notice or acknowledge symptoms for several years. Typically, they will begin noticing the first symptoms of shortness of breath when they reach their 40s. However, earlier signs of COPD are often present. These include chronic cough and increased mucus production. Recognizing these early signs is important because lifestyle modifications, such as smoking cessation and avoiding respiratory irritants, can be made to prevent additional damage to the airways.
Sleep DisordersContinuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) - One of the most common sleep disorders is sleep apnea - a disorder that causes a person's airway to close several times during one night's sleep. For those with sleep apnea, relief usually comes with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) devices deliver a prescribed level of positive pressure non-invasively to the upper airway for the treatment of sleep apnea. Extremely easy to use, CPAPs come with different features such as ramping to allow comfortable adjustment to the pressure; software to capture specific usage and breathing events; and automated altitude adjustment. Accessories, such as nasal interface applications and humidification devices are provided to afford maximum comfort to ensure patient compliance.
Emergency CareThe Clinical Recliner can be used throughout hospitals and alternate site facilities. It is especially suited for dialysis, blood collection, same day surgery, EEK-EKG, extended care, oncology, outpatient clinic, emergency room, maternity, and respiratory use.
Infectious DiseasesIn many cases, epilepsy develops as a result of brain damage from other disorders. For example, brain tumors, alcoholism, and Alzheimer's disease frequently lead to epilepsy because they alter the normal workings of the brain. Strokes, heart attacks, and other conditions that deprive the brain of oxygen also can cause epilepsy in some cases. About 32 percent of all cases of newly developed epilepsy in elderly people appears to be due to cerebrovascular disease, which reduces the supply of oxygen to brain cells. Meningitis, AIDS, viral encephalitis, and other infectious diseases can lead to epilepsy, as can hydrocephalus -- a condition in which excess fluid builds up in the brain. Epilepsy also can result from intolerance to wheat gluten (also known as
Urinary IncontinenceIncontinence is the inability to control the passage of urine. This can range from an occasional leakage of urine, to a complete inability to hold any urine. Urinary incontinence affects approximately 13 million people in the United States and is more common in women than in men. It occurs in 10 percent to 25 percent of women younger than age 65 and in 15 percent to 30 percent of women older than age 60 who do not live in nursing homes. Among nursing home residents, incontinence is even more common, affecting more than 50 percent of female patients.
Computed TomographyOne of the most important ways of diagnosing epilepsy is through the use of brain scans. The most commonly used brain scans include CT (computed tomography), PET (positron emission tomography) and MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). CT and MRI scans reveal the structure of the brain, which can be useful for identifying brain tumors, cysts, and other structural abnormalities. PET and an adapted kind of MRI called functional MRI (fMRI) can be used to monitor the brain's activity and detect abnormalities in how it works. SPECT ( single photon emission computed tomography ) is a relatively new kind of brain scan that is sometimes used to locate seizure foci in the brain.
ChemotherapyThe need for Chemotherapy depends on how much the cancer has spread. In some cases, chemotherapy will be recommended before surgery to shrink a large tumor so that it can be removed more easily. Chemotherapy is almost always necessary if cancer recurs. A form of chemotherapy called hormonal chemotherapy usually is recommended when the pathology report shows that the cancer is estrogen-receptor positive.
Radiation TherapyRadiation. High doses of radiation may increase a woman's risk of breast cancer. An increased risk of breast cancer has been observed in long-term survivors of atomic bombs, patients with lymphoma treated with radiation therapy to the chest, patients undergoing large numbers of x-rays for tuberculosis or non-malignant conditions of the spine, and children treated with radiation for tinea capitis (ringworm).
UltrasoundIf you have heart failure, your doctor will monitor you closely. This means having follow up appointments at least every 3 to 6 months, figuring out any underlying cause and treating it, and periodic testing of your heart function. For example, an ultrasound of your heart, called an echocardiogram, will be done once in awhile to give an estimate of how well your heart is pumping blood with each stroke or beat.
MRIThe MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) scanner is used in most areas of the country to diagnose MS. Linked to a computer, it takes detailed pictures of the brain and spinal cord. It is very accurate and can pinpoint the exact location and size of plaques. Over 90 per cent of people with MS have plaques that show up on MRI scans, but some people's scans show no myelin damage.
Cataract SurgeryMedicare covers one complete pair of glasses, after the last cataract surgery with intra-ocular lens replacement. The Medicare benefit includes a frame and two lenses. As an alternative a pair of contact lenses can be covered in lieu of glasses.
CataractsMyotonic MD - varies in the age of onset and is characterized by myotonia (prolonged muscle spasm) in the fingers and facial muscles; a floppy-footed, high-stepping gait; cataracts; cardiac abnormalities; and endocrine disturbances. Individuals with myotonic MD have long faces and drooping eyelids; men have frontal baldness.
CornsCheck every day for sores, blisters, calluses or swelling. Don't try to treat calluses or corns at home. See your doctor. Cut toenails straight across. Look for sharp edges - they can cut your Check shoes inside and out for sharp objects before you put them on. Pebbles, nails or even a torn shoe lining could cause problems.
UlcerA pressure ulcer is an injury usually caused by unrelieved pressure that damages the skin and underlying tissue. Pressure ulcers are also called bed sores and range in severity from mile (minor skin reddening) to severe (deep craters down to muscle and bone).
LesionsSome people develop antibodies to beta interferons, which may make them less effective. Other people can't tolerate the side effects, which may include symptoms similar to those of the flu (influenza).Mayo Clinic neurologists generally recommend beta interferons for people who have more than one attack of MS a year and for those who don't recover well from flare-ups. The treatment may also be used for people who have a significant buildup of new lesions as seen on an MRI scan, even when there may not be major new symptoms of disease activity.
HypothyroidismSome illnesses can lead to obesity or a tendency to gain weight. These include hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, depression, and certain neurological problems that can lead to overeating. Also, drugs such as steroids and some antidepressants may cause weight gain. A doctor can tell whether there are underlying medical conditions that are causing weight gain or making weight loss difficult.
ThyroidMost persons have flu-like symptoms (fever, chills, headache, muscle and joint aches, fast heart rate) early in treatment, but these lessen with continued treatment. Later side effects may include tiredness, hair loss, low blood count, trouble with thinking, moodiness, and depression. Severe side effects are rare (seen in less than 2 out of 100 persons). These include thyroid disease, depression with suicidal thoughts, seizures, acute heart or kidney failure, eye and lung problems, hearing loss, and blood infection. Although rare, deaths have occurred due to liver failure or blood infection, mostly in persons with cirrhosis. An important side effect of interferon is worsening of liver disease with treatment, which can be severe and even fatal. Interferon dosage must be reduced in up to 40 out of 100 persons because of severity of side effects, and treatment must be stopped in up to 15 out of 100 persons. Pregnant women should not be treated with interferon.
Kidney StonesStudies have shown that, in some cases, children may experience fewer seizures if they maintain a strict diet rich in fats and low in carbohydrates. This unusual diet, called the ketogenic diet, causes the body to break down fats instead of carbohydrates to survive. This condition is called ketosis. One study of 150 children whose seizures were poorly controlled by medication found that about one-fourth of the children had a 90 percent or better decrease in seizures with the ketogenic diet, and another half of the group had a 50 percent or better decrease in their seizures. Moreover, some children can discontinue the ketogenic diet after several years and remain seizure-free. The ketogenic diet is not easy to maintain, as it requires strict adherence to an unusual and limited range of foods. Possible side effects include retarded growth due to nutritional deficiency and a buildup of uric acid in the blood, which can lead to kidney stones. People who try the ketogenic diet should seek the guidance of a dietician to ensure that it does not lead to serious nutritional deficiency.
Ovarian CancerA history of endometrial or ovarian cancer. The development of these cancers is also associated with exposure to hormones and, therefore, a woman's risk of breast cancer may also be increased. Some BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutations may also increase the risk of both ovarian and breast cancers.
Urinary Tract InfectionAntibiotics - If your incontinence is due to a urinary tract infection or an inflamed prostate gland (prostatitis), your doctor can successfully treat the problem with antibiotics.
Lung CancerBreast cancer is the most common cancer occurring in women (excluding cancers of the skin) and the second most common cause of death from cancer in women after lung cancer. Men can also develop breast cancer, but male breast cancer is rare, accounting for less than 1% of all breast cancer cases. If diagnosed at an early stage, breast cancer has an encouraging cure rate: up to 97% of women diagnosed with localized breast cancer will survive five years after their diagnosis. Even if the cancer is found at a more advanced stage, new therapies have enabled many people with breast cancer to experience a good quality of life.
Mental HealthSupport groups bring together people, family and friends who are coping with the same kind of physical or mental health challenge. Support groups provide a setting in which people can share their common problems and provide ongoing support to one another.
Breast SurgeryCertified Mastectomy Fitter Amber Newcomer works one-on-one with women offering recovery garments to women after surgery at Blanchard Valley Hospital and surrounding medical facilities even before they leave the hospital to ease both their physical and emotional discomfort. Working with breast and mastectomy care leader Amoena, Amber and Greene Respiratory offers consultations, fittings and products to help women regain their body shape and confidence after breast cancer and breast surgery. Clients are seen in the Findlay location and home visits are available to women who cannot come to the store.
Physical TherapyPhysical therapy: Physical therapy, especially regular stretching, is important in helping to maintain the range of motion for affected muscles and to prevent or delay contractures. Strengthening other muscles to compensate for weakness in affected muscles may be of benefit also, especially in earlier stages of milder MD. Regular exercise is important in maintaining good, overall health, but strenuous exercise may damage muscles further. For patients whose leg muscles are affected, braces may help lengthen the period of time that they can walk independently.
Occupational TherapyOccupational therapy: Occupational therapy involves employing methods and tools to compensate for a patient’s loss of strength and mobility. This may include modifications at home, dressing aids, wheelchair accessories and communication aids.
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