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BracesAn aphthous ulcer (pronounced /ËˆÃ¦pÎ¸É™s/; AP-thÉ™s) also known as a canker sore, is a type of mouth ulcer, appears as a painful open sore inside the mouth or upper throat characterized by a break in the mucous membrane. Its cause is unknown, but they are not contagious. The condition is also known as aphthous stomatitis, and alternatively as Sutton's Disease, especially in the case of major, multiple, or recurring ulcers. The term aphtha means ulcer; it has been used for many years to describe areas of ulceration on mucous membranes. Aphthous stomatitis is a condition which is characterized by recurrent discrete areas of ulceration which are almost always painful. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) can be distinguished from other diseases with similar-appearing oral lesions, such as certain oral bacteria or herpes simplex, by their tendency to recur, and their multiplicity and chronicity. Recurrent aphthous stomatitis is one of the most common oral conditions. At least 10% of the population has it, and women are more often affected than men. About 30â€“40% of patients with recurrent aphthae report a family history. Contents [hide] * 1 Classification o 1.1 Minor ulceration o 1.2 Major ulcerations o 1.3 Herpetiform ulcerations * 2 Signs and symptoms * 3 Causes * 4 Prevention o 4.1 Oral and dental measures o 4.2 Nutritional therapy * 5 Treatment * 6 Epidemiology * 7 References * 8 External links  Classification Aphthous ulcers are classified according to the diameter of the lesion.  Minor ulceration "Minor aphthous ulcers" indicate that the lesion size is between 3 mm (0.1 in)-10 mm (0.4 in). The appearance of the lesion is that of an erythematous halo with yellowish or grayish color. Pain that affects quality of life is the obvious characteristic of the lesion. When the ulcer is white or grayish, the ulcer will be extremely painful and the affected lip may swell. They may last about 2 weeks.  Major ulcerations Major aphthous ulcers have the same appearance as minor ulcerations, but are greater than 10 mm in diameter and are extremely painful. They usually take more than a month to heal, and frequently leave a scar. These typically develop after puberty with frequent recurrences. They occur on movable non-keratinizing oral surfaces, but the ulcer borders may extend onto keratinized surfaces.  Herpetiform ulcerations This is the most severe form. It occurs more frequently in females, and onset is often in adulthood. It is characterized by small, numerous, 1â€“3 mm lesions that form clusters. They typically heal in less than a month without scarring. Supportive treatment is almost always necessary.  Signs and symptoms Apthous ulcer Large aphthous ulcer on the lower lip Aphthous ulcers usually begin with a tingling or burning sensation at the site of the future aphthous ulcer. In a few days, they often progress to form a red spot or bump, followed by an open ulcer. The
OrthodonticsOrthodontics (from Greek orthos "straight or proper"; and odous "tooth") is the first specialty of dentistry that is concerned with the study and treatment of malocclusions (improper bites), which may be a result of tooth irregularity, disproportionate jaw relationships, or both. Orthodontic treatment can focus on dental displacement only, or can deal with the control and modification of facial growth. In the latter case it is better defined as "dentofacial orthopaedics". Orthodontic treatment can be carried out for purely aesthetic reasons with regards to improving the general appearance of patients' teeth. However, there are orthodontists who work on reconstructing the entire face rather than focusing exclusively on teeth. Edward Angle was the first orthodontistâ€”the first dentist to limit his practice to orthodontics only. He is considered the "Father of Modern Orthodontics." Contents [hide] * 1 Methods * 2 Diagnosis and treatment planning * 3 Training o 3.1 United States of America o 3.2 Europe o 3.3 Canada o 3.4 India * 4 References  Methods For comprehensive orthodontic treatment, most commonly, metal wires (Juste) are inserted into orthodontic brackets (see dental braces), which can be made from stainless steel or a more aesthetic ceramic material. The wires interact with the brackets to move teeth into the desired positions. Other methods may include invisalign. Invisalign consists of clear plastic aligners that allow you to realign your teeth without others seeing how your teeth are moving. Dental braces, with a powerchain, removed after completion of treatment. Additional componentsâ€”including removable appliances ("plates"), headgear, expansion appliances, and many other devicesâ€”may also be used to move teeth and jaw bones. Functional appliances, for example, are used in growing patients (age 5 to 14) with the aim of modifying the jaw dimensions and relationship if these are altered. This therapy, termed Dentofacial Orthopedics, is frequently followed by fixed multibracket therapy ("full braces") to align the teeth and refine the occlusion. Hawley retainers are the most common type of retainers. This picture shows retainers for the top and bottom of the mouth. Orthodontics is the study of dentistry that is concerned with the treatment of improper bites, and crooked teeth. Orthodontic treatment can help fix your teeth and set them in the right place. Orthodontists usually use braces and retainers to set your teeth.  There are, however, orthodontists who work on reconstructing the entire face rather than focusing exclusively on teeth. After a course of active orthodontic treatment, patients will typically wear retainers, which maintain the teeth in their improved positions while surrounding bone reforms around them. The retainers are generally worn full-time for a short period, perhaps six months to a year, then part-time (typically, nightly during sleep) for as long as the orthodontist recommends. It is possi
Invisalign OrthodonticsInvisalign® es transparente. Usted puede enderezar sus dientes sin que nadie lo sepa.No hay brackets de metal o cables como con los frenos normales, lo cual quiere decir que pasara menos tiempo en la oficina dental recibiendo ajustes.
Dental ImplantsThese wonders of modern dentistry are carefully placed where your original tooth used to be. It's failly quick to do and rarely uncomfortable. Then, after a short healing period, a beautiful new replacement tooth is attached to the implant. All the things you used to be able to do with your natural teeth can be done again with implants!
BridgesDentures are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth, and which are supported by surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Conventional dentures are removable, however there are many different denture designs, some which rely on bonding or clasping onto teeth or dental implants. There are two main categories of dentures, depending on whether they are used to replace missing teeth on the mandibular arch or the maxillary arch. Contents [hide] * 1 Causes of tooth loss * 2 Advantages * 3 Types of dentures o 3.1 Removable partial dentures o 3.2 Complete dentures * 4 History * 5 Fabrication of Complete Dentures * 6 Problems with complete dentures * 7 Prosthodontic principles of dentures o 7.1 Support o 7.2 Stability o 7.3 Retention o 7.4 Complications and recommendations * 8 References  Causes of tooth loss Patients can become entirely edentulous (without teeth) due to many reasons, the most prevalent being removal because of dental disease typically relating to oral flora control, i.e. periodontal disease and tooth decay. Other reasons include tooth developmental defects caused by severe malnutrition, genetic defects such as Dentinogenesis imperfecta, trauma, or drug use.  Advantages Dentures can help patients in a number of ways: 1. Mastication - chewing ability is improved by replacing edentulous areas with denture teeth. 2. Aesthetics - the presence of teeth provide a natural facial appearance, and wearing a denture to replace missing teeth provides support for the lips and cheeks and corrects the collapsed appearance that occurs after losing teeth. 3. Phonetics - by replacing missing teeth, especially the anteriors, patients are better able to speak by improving pronunciation of those words containing sibilants or fricatives. 4. Self-Esteem - Patients feel better about themselves.  Types of dentures  Removable partial dentures Removable partial dentures are for patients who are missing some of their teeth on a particular arch. Fixed partial dentures, also known as "crown and bridge", are made from crowns that are fitted on the remaining teeth to act as abutments and pontics made from materials to resemble the missing teeth. Fixed bridges are more expensive than removable appliances but are more stable.  Complete dentures Conversely, complete dentures or full dentures are worn by patients who are missing all of the teeth in a single arch (i.e. the maxillary (upper) or mandibular (lower) arch).  History Around 700BC, Etruscans in northern Italy made dentures out of human or other animal teeth. These deteriorated quickly but, being easy to produce, were popular until the mid 19th century. The oldest useful complete denture appeared in Japan, and has been traced to the ganjyoji temple in Kii Province, Japan.ã€‚It was a wooden denture made of Buxus microphylla, and used by Nakaoka Tei (â€“20 April 1538). This wooden denture had almost the same shape as modern dentures retai
Restorative DentistryDr. Elias Tobon, DDS graduated from Tufts University in 1992. He is proud to provide gentle, family-oriented dental care to the adults and children of this community. Our office combines the latest dental knowledge and technology together with care and compassion. We offer treatment in general, periodontal, cosmetic and restorative dentistry.
Dental BondingTooth bonding is used for a variety of purposes: to correct a tooth gap, to cover discolorations, or to repair chipped/cracked teeth. Bonding takes approximately 30-60 minutes in a single visit to our office. Tooth bonding is dependent upon the artistic ability of the dentist, since the work is done “freehand” without taking impressions or using a laboratory. The tooth must be color-matched, sculpted, and polished to produce a beautiful and natural-looking result.
FillingsDental composite From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from White filling) Jump to: navigation, search Question book-new.svg This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (May 2007) Question book-new.svg This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding reliable references. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (November 2010) Dental composites. Dental composite resins are types of synthetic resins which are used in dentistry as restorative material or adhesives. Synthetic resins evolved as restorative materials since they were insoluble, aesthetic, and insensitive to dehydration and were inexpensive. It is easy to manipulate them as well. Composite resins are most commonly composed of Bis-GMA monomers or some Bis-GMA analog, a filler material such as silica and in most current applications, a photoinitiator. Dimethacrylates are also commonly added to achieve certain physical properties such as flowability. Further tailoring of physical properties is achieved by formulating unique concentrations of each constituent.Unlike Amalgam which essentially just fills a hole, composite cavity restorations when used with dentin and enamel bonding techniques restore the tooth back to near its original physical integrity. Contents [hide] * 1 History of use * 2 Composition * 3 Advantages * 4 Disadvantages * 5 Direct dental composites * 6 Indirect dental composites * 7 Composite shrinkage * 8 See also * 9 References  History of use File:Polymerizationslampe an 20090930 03.JPG Polymerization hardening lamp used on a composite dental filling. Initially, composite restorations in dentistry were very prone to leakage and breakage due to weak compressive strength. In the 1990s and 2000s, composites were greatly improved and are said to have a compression strength sufficient for use in posterior teeth. Today's composite resins have low polymerization shrinkage and low coefficients of thermal shrinkage, which allows them to be placed in bulk while maintaining good adaptation to cavity walls. The placement of composite requires meticulous attention to procedure or it may fail prematurely. The tooth must be kept perfectly dry during placement or the resin will likely fail to adhere to the tooth. Composites are placed while still in a soft, dough-like state, but when exposed to light of a certain blue wavelength, they polymerize and harden into the solid filling. It is challenging to harden all of the composite, since the light often does not penetrate more than 2â€“3 mm into the composite. If too thick an amount of composite is placed in the tooth, the composite will remain partially soft, and this soft unpolymerized composite could ultimately irritate or kill the tooth's nerve. The dentist should place composite in a deep filling in numerous increments, curing
Resin CompositeIn dentistry, a veneer is a thin layer of restorative material placed over a tooth surface, either to improve the aesthetics of a tooth, or to protect a damaged tooth surface. There are two main types of material used to fabricate a veneer, composite and dental porcelain. A composite veneer may be directly placed (built-up in the mouth), or indirectly fabricated by a dental technician in a dental laboratory, and later bonded to the tooth, typically using a resin cement such as Panavia. In contrast, a porcelain veneer may only be indirectly fabricated. Contents [hide] * 1 History * 2 Indications * 3 Alternatives * 4 See also * 5 References  History Veneers were invented by a California dentist named Charles Pincus . At the time, they fell off in a very short time as they were held on by denture adhesive. They were, however, useful for temporarily changing the appearance of actors' teeth. Research started in 1982 by Simonsen and Calamia  revealed that porcelain could be etched with hydrofluoric acid, and bond strengths could be achieved between composite resins and porcelain that were predicted to be able to hold porcelain veneers on to the surface of a tooth permanently. This was confirmed by Calamia  in an article describing a technique for fabrication, and placement of Etched Bonded Porcelain Veneers using a refractory model technique and Horn  describing a platinum foil technique for veneer fabrication. Additional articles have proven the long-term reliability of this technique.  Today, with improved cements and bonding agents, they typically last 10-30 years. They may have to be replaced in this time due to cracking, leaking, chipping, discoloration, decay, shrinkage of the gum line and damage from injury or tooth grinding. The cost of veneers can vary depending on the experience and location of the dentist. In the US, costs range anywhere from $1000 a tooth upwards to $2500 a tooth as of 2009. Porcelain veneers are said to be somewhat more durable and less likely to stain than veneers made of composite.,  Indications Veneers are an important tool for the cosmetic dentist. A dentist may use one veneer to restore a single tooth that may have been fractured or discolored, or multiple teeth to create a "Hollywood" type of makeover. Many people have small teeth resulting in spaces that may not be easily closed by orthodontics. Some people have worn away the edges of their teeth resulting in a prematurely aged appearance, while others may have malpositioned teeth that appear crooked. Multiple veneers can close these spaces, lengthen teeth that have been shortened by wear, provide a uniform color, shape, and symmetry, and make the teeth appear straight. The problem of overuse of porcelain veneers by certain cosmetic dentists has been profiled in the book, 'Confessions of a Former Cosmetic Dentist'. The author suggests that the use of veneers for 'instant orthodontics' or
Gold RestorationsInlays An impression of preparation for restoration with a DO gold inlay on tooth #5. The "DO" designation indicates that the gold serves as a restoration for the distal and occlusal surfaces of the tooth. This tooth was prepared and the inlay will be fabricated according to the R.V. Tucker method of gold inlay preparation. Notice how the line angles of the impression for the inlay are very sharp and precise; this is achieved using carbon-tipped stainless steel instruments. The salmon-colored polyvinylsiloxane impression material is less viscous than the blue and is able to capture better detail for the tooth being restored. Sometimes, a tooth is treatment planned to be restored with an intracoronal restoration, but the decay or fracture is so extensive that a direct restoration, such as amalgam or composite, would compromise the structural integrity of the restored tooth by possibly undermining the remaining tooth structure or providing substandard opposition to occlusal (i.e. biting) forces. In such situations, an indirect gold or porcelain inlay restoration may be indicated. The following documents the indirect (out of the mouth) fabrication of a gold inlay. When an inlay is used, the tooth-to-restoration margin may be finished and polished to such a super-fine line of contact that recurrent decay will be all but impossible. It is for this reason that some dentists recommend inlays as the restoration of choice for pretty much any and all filling situations. While these restorations might be ten times the price of direct restorations, the superiority of an inlay as a restoration in terms of resistance to occlusal forces, protection against recurrent decay, precision of fabrication, marginal integrity, proper contouring for gingival (tissue) health, ease of cleansing and many other aspects of restorative quality offers an excellent alternative to the direct restoration. For this reason, some patients request inlay restorations so they can benefit from its wide range of advantages even when an amalgam or composite will suffice. The only true disadvantage of an inlay is the higher cost. An MO gold inlay on tooth #3, the "MO" designation indicating that the gold serves as a restoration for the mesial and occlusal surfaces of the tooth. This tooth was also restored according to the R.V. Tucker method. Notice how the gold appears to flow into the tooth structure, almost perfectly mimicking the natural contours and even allowing the specular reflection to continue over the margin from tooth to gold.  Onlays Additionally, when decay or fracture incorporate areas of a tooth that make amalgam or composite restorations essentially inadequate, such as cuspal fracture or remaining tooth structure that undermines perimeter walls of a tooth, an "onlay" might be indicated. Similar to an inlay, an onlay is an indirect restoration which incorporates a cusp or cusps by covering or onlaying the missing cusps. All of the benefits of an inlay are present in th
VeneersA dental veneer is a thin layer of synthetic material (porcelain or composite) that is placed over the tooth’s surface to improve the tooth’s attractiveness in terms of alignment, color or shape. A substantial aesthetic effect can be obtained with a veneer and minimal tooth preparation is required.
CrownsA crown is a prosthetic positioned over a tooth to create a smoother look and enhance strength and durability. When a tooth is cracked, has an old filling, or is severely decayed, the placement of a crown is often recommended. Crowns strengthen and protect the remaining tooth structure and can improve the appearance of your smile. Types of crowns include the full porcelain crown (ideal for use on the front teeth), the porcelain-fused-to-metal crown and the all-metal crown (ideal for use on the back teeth).
Root Canal TreatmentAt the core of the tooth is soft tissue. The hollow area that houses this soft tissue contains a space towards the top of the tooth called the pulp chamber. This pulp chamber is connected to the root of the tooth via pipe-like canals, giving rise to the term “Root Canal”. The blood vessels in these canals provide nutrition to the tooth. Occasionally, the internal soft tissue of the tooth becomes infected and can result in a serious infection if left untreated. Root canal treatment should take place before the infection gets too serious.
DenturesDentures are a set of artificial teeth used when a patient has lost real teeth. Dentures help give better chewing abilities and greater aesthetic appeal by providing the illusion of natural teeth.
OverdenturesEdentulism is the condition of being toothless to at least some degree; it is the result of tooth loss. Loss of some teeth results in partial edentulism, while loss of all teeth results in complete edentulism. Organisms that never possessed teeth can also be described as edentulous, such as members of the former zoological classification order of Edentata, which included anteaters, sloths and armadillos, all of which possess no anterior teeth and either no or poorly-developed posterior teeth. Contents [hide] * 1 Signs and symptoms o 1.1 Facial support and aesthetics o 1.2 Vertical dimension of occlusion o 1.3 Pronunciation o 1.4 Preservation of alveolar ridge height o 1.5 Masticatory efficiency * 2 Cause * 3 Epidemiology * 4 References  Signs and symptoms This X-ray film displays two lone-standing teeth, #21 and #22, as the remnants of a once full complement of 16 lower teeth. This case of partial edentulism is the result of periodontal disease, as is suggested by the substantial bone loss on the two remaining teeth. For people, the relevance and functionality of teeth can be easily taken for granted, but a closer examination of their considerable significance will demonstrate how they are actually very important. Among other things, teeth serve to: * support the lips and cheeks, providing for a fuller, more aesthetically pleasing appearance * maintain an individual's vertical dimension of occlusion * along with the tongue and lips, allow for the proper pronunciation of various sounds * preserve and maintain the height of the alveolar ridge * cut, grind, and otherwise chew food  Facial support and aesthetics When an individual's mouth is at rest, the teeth in the opposing jaws are nearly touching; there is what is referred to as a freeway space of roughly 2â€“3 mm. However, this distance is partially maintained as a result of the teeth limiting any further closure past the point of maximum intercuspation. When there are no teeth present in the mouth, the natural vertical dimension of occlusion is lost and the mouth has a tendency to overclose. This causes the cheeks to exhibit a "sunken-in" appearance and wrinkle lines to form at the commisures. Additionally, the anterior teeth, when present, serve to properly support the lips and provide for certain aesthetic features, such as an acute nasiolabial angle. Loss of muscle tone and skin elasticity due to old age, when most individuals begin to experience edentulism, tend to further exacerbate this condition. The tongue, which consists of a very dynamic group of muscles, tends to fill the space it is allowed, and in the absence of teeth, will broaden out. This makes it initially difficult to fabricate both complete dentures and removable partial dentures for patients exhibiting complete and partial edentulism, respectively; however, once the space is "taken back" by the prosthetic teeth, the tongue will return to a narrower body.  Vertical dimension of occlusion As stated, t
Tooth WhiteningGet a movie star smile within one hour! Teeth whitening is a procedure that removes stains and discoloration from teeth. Try our
Cosmetic DentistryDr. Taidy Costoya, originally from Cuba and raised in Florida, has received her D.M.D. and graduated with honors from the prestigious Nova Southeastern University College of Dental Medicine. She joined Dr. Elias Tobon's private practice in 2006, focusing on general and cosmetic dentistry. From an early age, she develops a strong interest and great reverence for reconstructive dentistry and in pursuit of knowledge she completed an additional 3 year Post-Graduate Specialty Certificate in Prosthodontics at Nova Southeastern Universtiy's School of Dental Medicine. Her training was focused on full mouth rehabilitation, dental implant surgery and maxilofacial prosthodontics.
General DentistryDental bleaching, also known as tooth whitening, is a common procedure in general dentistry but most especially in the field of cosmetic dentistry. A child's deciduous teeth are generally whiter than the adult teeth that follow. As a person ages the adult teeth often become darker due to changes in the mineral structure of the tooth, as the enamel becomes less porous. Teeth can also become stained by bacterial pigments, foodstuffs and tobacco. Certain antibiotic medications (like tetracycline) can also cause teeth stains or a reduction in the brilliance of the enamel. There are many methods to whiten teeth: bleaching strips, bleaching pen, bleaching gel, laser bleaching, and natural bleaching. Traditionally, at-home whitening involves applying bleaching gel to the teeth using thin guard trays. At-home whitening can also be done by applying small strips that go over the front teeth. Oxidizing agents such as hydrogen peroxide or carbamide peroxide are used to lighten the shade of the tooth. The oxidizing agent penetrates the porosities in the rod-like crystal structure of enamel and oxidizes interprismatic stain deposits; over a period of time, the dentin layer, lying underneath the enamel, is also bleached. Power bleaching uses light energy to accelerate the process of bleaching in a dental office. The effects of bleaching can last for several months, but may vary depending on the lifestyle of the patient. Factors that decrease whitening include smoking and the ingestion of dark colored liquids like coffee, tea and red wine. Internal staining of dentine can discolor the teeth from inside out. Internal bleaching can remedy this. If heavy staining or tetracycline damage is present on a patient's teeth, and whitening is ineffective, there are other methods of whitening teeth. Bonding, when a thin coating of composite material is applied to the front of a person's teeth and then cured with a blue light can be performed to mask the staining. A veneer can also mask tooth discoloration. Contents [hide] * 1 Methods * 2 Risks * 3 Internal bleaching * 4 Agents * 5 References  Methods According to the American Dentist Association there are different options to whiten one's teeth that include: in-office bleaching, which is applied by a professional dentist; at-home bleaching, which is to be used at home by the patient; over-the-counter, which is applied by patients; and options called non-dental, which are offered at mall kiosks, spas, salons, or other similar places). Whitening products intended for home use include gels, chewing gums, rinses, toothpastes, among others. The ADA has published a list of accepted over-the-counter whitening products to help people choose appropriate whitening products. The ADA recommends to have one's teeth checked by a dentist before undergoing any whitening method. The dentist should examine the patient thoroughly: take a health and dental history (including allergies and sensitivities), observe
Teeth CleaningThe toothbrush is an oral hygiene instrument used to clean the teeth and gums that consists of a head of tightly clustered bristles mounted on a handle, which facilitates the cleansing of hard-to-reach areas of the mouth. Toothpaste, which often contains fluoride, is commonly used in conjunction with a toothbrush to increase the effectiveness of toothbrushing. Toothbrushes are available with different bristle textures, sizes and forms. Most dentists recommend using a toothbrush labelled "soft", since hard bristled toothbrushes can damage tooth enamel and irritate the gums. Toothbrushes have usually been made from synthetic fibers since they were developed, although animal bristles are still sometimes used. Contents [hide] * 1 History * 2 See also * 3 References * 4 External links  History A variety of oral hygiene measures have been used since before recorded history. This has been verified by various excavations done all over the world, in which chewsticks, tree twigs, bird feathers, animal bones and porcupine quills were recovered. The first toothbrush recorded in history was made in 3000 BC, a twig with a frayed end called a chewstick. Various forms of toothbrush have been used. Indian medicine (Ayurveda) used the twigs of the neem or banyan tree to make toothbrushes and other oral-hygiene-related products for millennia. The end of a neem twig is chewed until it is soft and splayed, and it is then used to brush the teeth. In the Muslim world, chewing miswak, or siwak, the roots or twigs of the Arak tree (Salvadora persica), which have antiseptic properties, is common practice. The usage of miswak dates back at least to the time of the Prophet Muhammad, who pioneered its use. Rubbing baking soda or chalk against the teeth has also been common practice in history. In 1223, Japanese Zen master DÅ gen Kigen recorded on ShÅ bÅ genzÅ that he saw monks in China clean their teeth with brushes made of horse-tail hairs attached to an ox-bone handle. A photo from 1899 showing the use of toothbrush. The earliest identified use of the word toothbrush in English was in the autobiography of Anthony Wood, who wrote in 1690 that he had bought a toothbrush off J. Barret. William Addis of England is believed to have produced the first mass-produced toothbrush in 1780. In 1770 he had been jailed for causing a riot; while in prison he decided that the method used to clean teeth â€“ at the time rubbing a rag with soot and salt on the teeth â€“ could be improved, so he took a small animal bone, drilled small holes in it, obtained some bristles from a guard, tied them in tufts, passed the tufts through the holes on the bone, and glued them. He soon became very wealthy. He died in 1808, and left the business to his eldest son, also called William; the company continues to this day. By 1840 toothbrushes were being mass-produced in England, France, Germany, and Japan. Pig bristle was used for cheaper toothb
Fluoride TreatmentDental caries, also known as tooth decay or a cavity, is a disease where bacterial processes damage hard tooth structure (enamel, dentin, and cementum). These tissues progressively break down, producing dental caries (cavities, holes in the teeth). Two groups of bacteria are responsible for initiating caries: Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, tooth loss, infection, and, in severe cases, death. Today, caries remains one of the most common diseases throughout the world. Cariology is the study of dental caries. The presentation of caries is highly variable; however, the risk factors and stages of development are similar. Initially, it may appear as a small chalky area that may eventually develop into a large cavitation. Sometimes caries may be directly visible, however other methods of detection such as radiographs are used for less visible areas of teeth and to judge the extent of destruction. Tooth decay is caused by specific types of acid-producing bacteria that cause damage in the presence of fermentable carbohydrates such as sucrose, fructose, and glucose. The mineral content of teeth is sensitive to increases in acidity from the production of lactic acid. Specifically, a tooth (which is primarily mineral in content) is in a constant state of back-and-forth demineralization and remineralization between the tooth and surrounding saliva. When the pH at the surface of the tooth drops below 5.5, demineralization proceeds faster than remineralization (meaning that there is a net loss of mineral structure on the tooth's surface). This results in the ensuing decay. Depending on the extent of tooth destruction, various treatments can be used to restore teeth to proper form, function, and aesthetics, but there is no known method to regenerate large amounts of tooth structure, though stem cell related research suggests one possibility. Instead, dental health organizations advocate preventive and prophylactic measures, such as regular oral hygiene and dietary modifications, to avoid dental caries. Contents [hide] * 1 Classification o 1.1 Location + 1.1.1 Pit and fissure caries (class I dental caries) + 1.1.2 Smooth-surface caries + 1.1.3 Other general descriptions o 1.2 Etiology o 1.3 Rate of progression o 1.4 Affected hard tissue * 2 Signs and symptoms * 3 Causes o 3.1 Teeth o 3.2 Bacteria o 3.3 Fermentable carbohydrates o 3.4 Time o 3.5 Other risk factors * 4 Pathophysiology o 4.1 Enamel o 4.2 Dentin + 4.2.1 Sclerotic dentin + 4.2.2 Tertiary dentin * 5 Diagnosis * 6 Treatment o 6.1 Medicinal plants in the treatment of dental caries * 7 Prevention o 7.1 Oral hygiene o 7.2 Dietary modification o 7.3 Other preventive measures * 8 Epidemiology * 9 History * 10 See also * 11 Footnotes and sources * 12 References * 13 External links  Classification Caries can be classified by location, etiology, rate of progression, and affected hard tissues. These forms of classification can be
Dental SealantsDentine hypersensitivity is sensation felt when the nerves inside the dentin of the teeth are exposed to the environment. The sensation can range from irritation all the way to intense, shooting pain. This sensitivity can be caused by several factors, including wear, decaying teeth or exposed tooth roots. Dentine contains many thousands of microscopic tubular structures that radiate outwards from the pulp; these dentinal tubules are typically 0.5-2 microns in diameter. Changes in the flow of the plasma-like biological fluid present in the dentinal tubules can trigger mechanoreceptors present on nerves located at the pulpal aspect thereby eliciting a pain response. This hydrodynamic flow can be increased by cold, air pressure, drying, sugar, sour (dehydrating chemicals), or forces acting onto the tooth. Hot or cold food or drinks, and physical pressure are typical triggers in those individuals with teeth sensitivity. Treatment can consist of amorphous calcium and phosphate, NovaMin, potassium nitrate, strontium chloride, gluma, fluoride therapy, or calcium sodium phosphosilicate. Potassium nitrate is commonly used in toothpastes such as Sensodyne or Crest Sensitive as a remedy and is approved as a monographed drug by the FDA. Nonetheless, there remains some dispute about its effectiveness. Strontium chloride and strontium acetate are used in Sensodyne Original and Sensodyne Mint toothpastes. The mode of action is linked to their ability to form mineralised deposits within the tubule lumen and on the surface of the exposed dentine that help prevent transmission of the applied stimulus. One cause of sensitive teeth can be traced to nocturnal gastroesophageal reflux disease (acid reflux). Stomach acid can reach the teeth and cause enamel loss and prevent re-mineralization. Contents [hide] * 1 Prevalence * 2 Prevention * 3 Treatments o 3.1 At-home treatments o 3.2 In-office treatments o 3.3 Other procedures * 4 See also * 5 References * 6 External links  Prevalence A study conducted at Queen's University, Belfast, determined that the prevalence of reported sensitivity was 57.2%. In most cases the incidence occurred in the 30-39 year age group. Although the majority of individuals reported that cold was the major stimulus for pain, other causes such as toothbrushing, hot, and sweet stimuli were reported as well. This study found the prevalence of dentine sensitivity to be much higher than in previous reports. These results suggest an increase in the levels of sensitivity within the general population.  Prevention Before the proper treatment for a patient is defined, it is important to first prevent, modify, eliminate or control etiologic factors such as plaque, improper toothbrushing, and a diet high in fermentable carbohydrates and/or acidic foods. Some examples of acidic foods are fruits, fruit juices and wine whose acids can remove smear layers and open dentinal tubules. Toothbrushing with abrasive toothpaste may abrade the d
Dental ExaminationTeeth cleaning is part of oral hygiene and involves the removal of dental plaque from teeth with the intention of preventing cavities (dental caries), gingivitis, and periodontal disease. People routinely clean their own teeth by brushing and interdental cleaning, and dental hygienists can remove hardened deposits not removed by routine cleaning. Contents [hide] * 1 Brushing, scrubbing and flossing o 1.1 Brushing o 1.2 Flossing and interdental cleaning o 1.3 Scrubbing * 2 Professional teeth cleaning * 3 Complications * 4 References * 5 External links  Brushing, scrubbing and flossing Main articles: Tooth brushing and Dental floss  Brushing Careful and frequent brushing with a toothbrush helps to prevent build-up of plaque bacteria on the teeth. These bacteria metabolize carbohydrates from food and excrete acid which demineralizes tooth enamel, which may eventually decay teeth, causing toothache and cavities and requiring dental treatment, often involving fillings. Dental calculus (tartar, hardened plaque) buildup on teeth, usually opposite salivary ducts, is due to minerals deposited on resident plaque. Frequent brushing and swishing saliva around helps prevent these deposits. Fluoride-containing or anti-plaque (tartar control) toothpastes may mitigate production of plaque and calculus. Early toothbrushing utilized powdered pumice stone as a polishing agent. Later, flavored powders were mixed with the powered pumice to make a more pleasant-tasting toothpowder. In the late 1920s powdered pumice was mixed with a flavored paste to make toothpaste, with no added treatment agents as found in toothpastes today. Electric toothbrushes were developed, and initially recommended for people with strength or dexterity problems in their hands, but they have come into widespread general use. The effectiveness of electric toothbrushes at reducing plaque formation and gingivitis is about the same as conventional toothbrushes Toothbrushing cannot reach or force toothpaste inside pits and fissures in chewing surfaces, where over 80% of cavities occur. A new toothbrush design is needed to force fluoride toothpaste inside pits and fissures to neutralise acid and remineralise demineralised tooth enamel.  Flossing and interdental cleaning In addition to brushing, cleaning between teeth may help to prevent build-up of plaque bacteria on the teeth. This may be done with dental floss or interdental brushes. 80% of cavities occur in the grooves, or pits and fissures, of the chewing surfaces of the teeth. Special appliances or tools may be used to supplement toothbrushing and interdental cleaning. These include special toothpicks, oral irrigators, and other devices.  Scrubbing Teeth can be cleaned by scrubbing with a twig instead of a toothbrush. Plant sap in the twig takes the place of toothpaste. In many parts of the world teeth cleaning twigs are used. In the Muslim world the miswak or si
X-raysDigital radiography is a form of x-ray imaging, where digital X-ray sensors are used instead of traditional photographic film. Advantages include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. Also less radiation can be used to produce an image of similar contrast to conventional radiography. Digital Radiography (DR) or (DX) is essentially filmless X-ray image capture. In place of X-ray film, a digital image capture device is used to record the X-ray image and make it available as a digital file that can be presented for interpretation and saved as part of the patientâ€™s medical record. The advantages of DR over film include immediate image preview and availability, a wider dynamic range which makes it more forgiving for over- and under-exposure as well as the ability to apply special image processing techniques that enhance overall display of the image. The largest motivator for healthcare facilities to adopt DR is its potential to reduce costs associated with processing, managing and storing films. Typically there are two variants of digital image capture devices. These devices include Flat Panel detectors (FPDs), and High Density Line Scan Solid State detectors. FPDs are classified in two main categories: 1. Indirect FPD's - Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the most frequent type of FPD sold in the medical imaging industry today. Combining a-Si detectors with a scintillator in the detectorâ€™s outer layer, which is made from Cesium Iodide (CsI), or Gadolinium Oxysulfide (Gd2O2S), converts X-ray to light. Because the X-ray energy is converted to light, the a-Si detector is considered an indirect image capture technology. The light is then channeled through the a-Si photodiode layer where it is converted to a digital output signal. The digital signal is then read out by Thin Film Transistors (TFTâ€™s) or by fiber coupled Charged Couple Devices (CCDâ€™s). The image data file is sent to a computer for display where the X-ray technologist can determine whether the image is appropriate for the intended anatomy. Once the Technologist determines the image is appropriate it can be sent to the radiologistâ€™s workstation or printed on film for interpretation. 2. Direct FPD's - Amorphous Selenium Flat Panel Detectors (a-Se) are known as â€œdirectâ€ detectors because X-ray photons are converted directly to charge. The outer layer of the flat panel in this design is typically a high voltage bias electrode. The bias electrode accelerates the captured energy from an X-ray exposure through the amorphous selenium layer. X-ray photons flowing through the selenium layer create electron hole pairs. These electron holes transit through the selenium based on the potential of the bias voltage charge. As the electron holes are replaced with electrons, the resultant charge pattern in the selenium layer is read out by a TFT array, Active Matrix Array, Electrometer Probes or
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Oral SurgeryNitrous oxide, commonly known as laughing gas or sweet air, is a chemical compound with the formula N2O. It is an oxide of nitrogen. At room temperature, it is a colorless non-flammable gas, with a slightly sweet odor and taste. It is used in surgery and dentistry for its anesthetic and analgesic effects. It is known as "laughing gas" due to the euphoric effects of inhaling it, a property that has led to its recreational use as a dissociative anesthetic. It is also used as an oxidizer in rocketry and in motor racing to increase the power output of engines. At elevated temperatures, nitrous oxide is a powerful oxidizer similar to molecular oxygen. Nitrous oxide gives rise to NO on reaction with oxygen atoms, and this NO in turn reacts with ozone. As a result, it is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. It is also a major greenhouse gas and air pollutant. Considered over a 100 year period, it has 298 times more impact per unit weight than carbon dioxide. Contents [hide] * 1 History o 1.1 Early use (1794-1843) o 1.2 Anesthetic use * 2 Production o 2.1 Other routes * 3 Applications o 3.1 Rocket motors o 3.2 Internal combustion engine o 3.3 Aerosol propellant o 3.4 In medicine o 3.5 Recreational use * 4 Neuropharmacology o 4.1 Anxiolytic effect o 4.2 Analgesic effect o 4.3 Euphoric effect o 4.4 Neurotoxicity * 5 Safety o 5.1 Chemical/physical o 5.2 Biological o 5.3 Environmental * 6 Legality * 7 See also * 8 References * 9 External links  History The gas was first synthesized by English natural philosopher and chemist Joseph Priestley in 1772, who called it phlogisticated nitrous air (see phlogiston). Priestley published his discovery in the book Experiments and Observations on Different Kinds of Air (1775), where he described how to produce the preparation of "nitrous air diminished", by heating iron filings dampened with nitric acid.  Early use (1794-1843) The first important use of nitrous oxide was made possible by Thomas Beddoes and the renowned engineer James Watt, who worked together to publish the book Considerations on the Medical Use and on the Production of Factitious Airs (1794). This book was important for two reasons. First, James Watt had invented a novel machine to produce "Factitious Airs" (i.e. nitrous oxide) and a novel "breathing apparatus" to inhale the gas. Second, the book also presented the new medical theories by Thomas Beddoes, that tuberculosis and other lung diseases could be treated by inhalation of "Factitious Airs" (the word factitious means "artificial"). The machine to produce "Factitious Airs" comprised three parts: A furnace to burn the needed material, a vessel with water where the produced gas passed through in a spiral pipe (in order for impurities to be "washed off"), and finally the gas cylinder with a gasometer where the produced air could be tapped into portable air bags (made of airtight oily silk). The breathing apparatus comprised one of the portable air b
Jaw SurgeryDental braces (also known as orthodontic braces, or simply braces) are devices used in the orthodontic industry that help align and straighten teeth and help to position them with regard to a personâ€™s bite, while also working to improve dental health. They are often used to correct under bites, as well as, malocclusions, overbites, cross bites, open bites, deep bites, crooked teeth, and various other flaws of the teeth and jaw. Braces can be either cosmetic or structural. Dental braces or orthodontic braces are often used in conjunction with other orthodontic appliances to help widen the palate or jaws and to otherwise assist in shaping the teeth and jaws. While they are mainly used on children and teenagers, adults are also big contributors to this type of market including people seen on television, such as actors, Tom Cruise, Katherine Heigl, and R&B singer Fantasia. Contents [hide] * 1 History o 1.1 Ancient Times o 1.2 18th century o 1.3 19th century o 1.4 20th century * 2 How braces work * 3 Types of braces * 4 Procedure * 5 Post-treatment o 5.1 Retainers o 5.2 Pre-Finisher * 6 Complications and risks * 7 Treatment time and cost * 8 References  History  Ancient Times Braces date all the way back to ancient times according to many scholars and historians, and existed around the time 500-300BC. Many experts say that around 400-500BC, Hippocrates and Aristotle contemplated about ways to straightened teeth and to fix various dental conditions. Archaeologists have come to discover numerous mummified ancient individuals with the appearance of metal bands wrapped around their teeth. It has been perceived that catgut, which is a type of cord that is made from the natural fibers of an animalâ€™s intestines, did the work that is done by todayâ€™s orthodontic wire used to close gaps in the teeth and mouth. Meanwhile in Greece during the so-called Golden Age, the Etruscans, seen as the early Romans, were burying their dead with dental appliances in place that were used to maintain space and prevent collapse of the teeth during after life. Although there is no date documented, this process was most likely before the start of our era. An unknown researcher found a Roman tomb with a number of teeth bound with gold wire documented as a ligature wire, which is a small elastic wire that is used to affix the arch wire to the bracket. In the early years of our era, a philosopher and physician, Aurelius Cornelius Celsus, first recorded the treatment of teeth by finger pressure. Unfortunately, due to lack of evidence, the poor preservation of bodies, and primitive technology, not much research was done on dental braces until around the 17th century, although dentistry as a profession was making great advancements.  18th century There are many orthodontic scholars who could be considered as the â€œFather of Orthodonticsâ€ who lived in the 17th, 18th, and even early 19th centuries. Dentists were continuously thin
Flap SurgeryPharyngeal flap surgery is a procedure to correct the airflow during speech. The procedure is common among people with cleft palate and some types of dysarthria. Contents [hide] * 1 Pharyngeal flap procedures * 2 Candidacy * 3 Complications * 4 Outcomes * 5 See also * 6 External links  Pharyngeal flap procedures Posterior pharyngeal flap surgery is the most commonly used operation to restore velopharyngeal competence (i.e., develop a functional seal between the nasal cavity and the oral cavity), and therefore correct hypernasality and nasal air escape (Ysunza et al., 2002). Posterior pharyngeal flaps can be based superiorly or inferiorly and the velum can be split transversely or along the midline (Lideman-Boshki et al., 2005). Centrally positioned, superior based flaps continue to be the most popular pharyngeal flap choice, yet inferior based flaps are easier for the surgeon to perform. Compared to superiorly based flaps, inferiorly based flaps are limited in regard to the size of velopharyngeal opening that can be covered (Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001). Pharyngoplasties correcting hypernasal speech can be traced back as far as the 19th century when Passavant first explored palatopexy in a 23 year old female (Hall et al., 1991). In 1876, Schoenborn also attempted to reduce the amount of air entering the nasal cavity by developing the first true inferior based pharyngeal flap surgery, where a flap of tissue was sutured into the velum and attached to the lower end of the posterior pharyngeal wall. Modifying his technique, Schoenborn published a superior based pharyngeal flap surgery in 1886, where the flap of tissue attached to the upper end of the posterior pharyngeal wall. In 1928, Rosenthal used an inferiorly based posterior pharyngeal flap in combination with a modified von Langenbeck palatoplasty in primary surgery for cleft palate repair. Taking a different approach, Padgett (1930) utilized a superiorly based flap for cleft palate patients whose primary surgical repair had been unsuccessful (Sloan, 2000). By the 1950s, posterior pharyngeal flap surgery became widely adopted in the correction of VPI (Peterson-Falzone et al., 2001). In the 1970s, Hogan and Shprintzen advanced posterior pharyngeal flaps, leading to an increased success rate in the elimination of VPI. Hogan (1973) proposed a â€˜lateral portal controlâ€™ flap to modulate the postoperative port size. In this flap, lateral ports exist on both sides of the pharyngeal flap to assist in drainage, nasal breathing, and nasal resonance. Using the pressure-flow studies of Warren and colleagues as a basis for lateral port size, Hogan placed a 4 mm diameter catheter through the lateral ports on either side of the flap to tailor the port size to the perception of nasal resonance (Sloan, 2000). Consistent with Warrenâ€™s aerodynamic data, Hogan advocated that the velopharyngeal opening be no greater than 4 mm in diameter because a larger gap would most likely result in hy
Maxillofacial SurgeryA wisdom tooth, in humans, is any of the usually four third molars, including mandibular third molar and maxillary third molar. Wisdom teeth usually appear between the ages of 17 and 25. Most adults have four wisdom teeth, but it is possible to have more, in which case they are called supernumerary teeth. Wisdom teeth commonly affect other teeth as they develop, becoming impacted or "coming in sideways". They are often extracted when this occurs. About 35% of the population does not develop wisdom teeth at all. Contents [hide] * 1 Impaction * 2 Partial eruption * 3 Extraction * 4 Post-extraction problems o 4.1 Bleeding and oozing o 4.2 Dry socket o 4.3 Swelling o 4.4 Nerve injury * 5 Treatment controversy o 5.1 Scientific trials o 5.2 Recommendations * 6 Vestigiality and variation * 7 Potential uses for extracted teeth * 8 Etymology o 8.1 Different terms in other languages * 9 See also * 10 References * 11 External links  Impaction The upper left (picture right) and upper right (picture left) wisdom tooth are distoangularly impacted. The lower left wisdom tooth is horizontally impacted. The lower right wisdom tooth is vertically impacted (unidentifiable in orthopantomogram). Impacted wisdom teeth fall into one of several categories: * Mesioangular impaction is the most common form (44%), and means the tooth is angled forward, towards the front of the mouth. * Vertical impaction (38%) occurs when the formed tooth does not erupt fully through the gum line. * Distoangular impaction (6%) means the tooth is angled backward, towards the rear of the mouth. * Horizontal impaction (3%) is the least common form, which occurs when the tooth is angled fully ninety degrees sideways, growing into the roots of the second molar. Typically mesioangular impactions are the most difficult to extract in the maxilla and easiest to extract in the mandible, while distoangular impactions are the easiest to extract in the maxilla and most difficult to extract in the mandible. Frequently, a fully erupted upper wisdom tooth requires bone removal if the tooth does not yield easily to forceps or elevators. Failure to remove distal or buccal bone while removing one of these teeth can cause the entire maxillary tuberosity to be fractured off, thereby tearing out the floor of the maxillary sinus. Impacted wisdom teeth may also be categorized on whether they are still completely encased in the jawbone. If it is completely encased in the jawbone, it is a bony impaction. If the wisdom tooth has erupted out of the jawbone but not through the gumline, it is called a soft tissue impaction. In a small portion of patients, cysts and tumors occur around impacted wisdom teeth, requiring surgical extraction. Estimates of the incidence of cysts around impacted teeth vary from 0.001% to 11%, with a higher incidence in older patients, suggesting that the chance of a cyst or tumor increases the longer an impaction exists. Only 1-2% of impactions re
Tooth ExtractionsA dental extraction (also referred to as exodontia) is the removal of a tooth from the mouth. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, including tooth decay that has destroyed enough tooth structure to prevent restoration. Extractions of impacted or problematic wisdom teeth are routinely performed, as are extractions of some permanent teeth to make space for orthodontic treatment. Contents [hide] * 1 History * 2 Reasons for tooth extraction * 3 Types of extraction * 4 Post-extraction healing * 5 Complications * 6 See also * 7 References  History Historically, dental extractions have been used to treat a variety of illnesses, as well as a method of torture to obtain forced confessions. Before the discovery of antibiotics, chronic tooth infections were often linked to a variety of health problems, and therefore removal of a diseased tooth was a common treatment for various medical conditions. Instruments used for dental extractions date back several centuries. In the 14th century, Guy de Chauliac invented the dental pelican, which was used through the late 18th century. The pelican was replaced by the dental key which, in turn, was replaced by modern forceps in the 20th century. As dental extractions can vary tremendously in difficulty, depending on the patient and the tooth, a wide variety of instruments exist to address specific situations.  Reasons for tooth extraction The most common reason for extraction is tooth damage due to breakage or decay. There are additional reasons for tooth extraction: * Severe tooth decay or infection. Despite the reduction in worldwide prevalence of dental caries, still it is the most common reason for extraction of (non-third molar) teeth with up to two thirds of extractions. * Extra teeth which are blocking other teeth from coming in. * Severe gum disease which may affect the supporting tissues and bone structures of teeth. * In preparation for orthodontic treatment (braces) * Teeth in the fracture line * Fractured teeth * Insufficient space for wisdom teeth (impacted third molars). Although many dentists remove asymptomatic impacted third molars, American as well as British Health Authorities recommended against this routine procedure, unless there are evidences for disease in the impacted tooth or the near environment. The American Public Health Association, for example, adopted a policy, Opposition to Prophylactic Removal of Third Molars (Wisdom Teeth) because of the large number of injuries resulting from unnecessary extractions. * Receiving radiation to the head and neck may require extraction of teeth in the field of radiation. * Deliberate, medically unnecessary, extraction as a particularly dreadful form of physical torture.  Types of extraction An extracted 3rd molar that was horizontally impacted. Extractions are often categorized as "simple" or "surgical". Simple extractions are performed on teeth that are visible in the mouth, usually under local anaest
Bone GraftingA dental implant is a titanium "root" used in dentistry to support restorations that resemble a tooth or group of teeth to replace missing teeth. Virtually all dental implants placed today are root-form endosseous implants, i.e., they appear similar to an actual tooth root (and thus possess a "root-form") and are placed within the bone (end- being the Greek prefix for "in" and osseous referring to "bone"). The bone of the jaw accepts and osseointegrates with the titanium post. The osseointegration is the component of this implant procedure that makes it resemble the look and feel of a natural tooth. Prior to the advent of root-form endosseous implants, most implants were either blade endosseous implants, in that the shape of the metal piece placed within the bone resembled a flat blade, or subperiosteal implants, in which a framework was constructed to lie upon and was attached with screws to the exposed bone of the jaws. Dental implants can be used to support a number of dental prostheses, including crowns, implant-supported bridges or dentures. They can also be used as anchorage for orthodontic tooth movement. The use of dental implants permits unidirectional tooth movement without reciprocal action. Contents [hide] * 1 History * 2 Composition * 3 Training * 4 Surgical procedure o 4.1 Surgical planning o 4.2 Basic procedure o 4.3 Detail procedure o 4.4 Surgical incisions o 4.5 Healing time o 4.6 One-stage, two-stage surgery o 4.7 Surgical timing o 4.8 Immediate placement o 4.9 Use of CT scanning * 5 Complementary procedures * 6 Considerations * 7 Success rates * 8 Failure * 9 Contraindications * 10 Market * 11 See also * 12 References * 13 External links  History The Mayan civilization has been shown to have used the earliest known examples of endosseous implants (implants embedded into bone), dating back over 1,350 years before Per-Ingvar BrÃ¥nemark started working with titanium. While excavating Mayan burial sites in Honduras in 1931, archaeologists found a fragment of mandible of Mayan origin, dating from about 600 AD. This mandible, which is considered to be that of a woman in her twenties, had three tooth-shaped pieces of shell placed into the sockets of three missing lower incisor teeth. For forty years the archaeological world considered that these shells were placed after death in a manner also observed in the ancient Egyptians. However, in 1970 a Brazilian dental academic, Professor Amadeo Bobbio studied the mandibular specimen and took a series of radiographs. He noted compact bone formation around two of the implants which led him to conclude that the implants were placed during life. In the 1950s research was being conducted at Cambridge University in England to study blood flow in vivo. These workers devised a method of constructing a chamber of titanium which was then embedded into the soft tissue of the ears of rabbits. In 1952 the Swedish orthopaedic surgeon, P I BrÃ¥nemark, was interested in studying bone healing and
Gingivectomy and GingivoplastyA dental laser is a type of laser designed specifically for use in oral surgery or dentistry. In the United States, the use of lasers on the gums was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration in the early 1990s, and use on hard tissue like teeth or the bone of the mandible gained approval in 1996. Several variants of dental laser are in use, with the most common being diode lasers, carbon dioxide lasers, and yttrium aluminium garnet laser. Different lasers use different wavelengths and these mean they are better suited for different applications. For example, diode lasers in the 810â€“900 nm range are well absorbed by red coloured tissues such as the gingivae increasingly being used in place of electrosurgery and standard surgery for soft tissue applications such as tissue contouring and gingivectomy Use of the dental laser remains limited, with cost and effectiveness being the primary barriers. The cost of a dental laser ranges from $8,000 to $50,000, where a pneumatic dental drill costs between $200 and $500. The lasers are also incapable of performing some routine dental operations. Dental lasers are not without their benefits, though, as the use of a laser can decrease morbidity after surgery, and reduces the need for anesthetics. Because of the cauterisation of tissue there will be little bleeding following soft tissue procedures, and some of the risks of alternative electrosurgery procedures are avoided.
Periodontal SurgeryPeriodontitis is a set of inflammatory diseases affecting the periodontium, i.e., the tissues that surround and support the teeth. Periodontitis involves progressive loss of the alveolar bone around the teeth, and if left untreated, can lead to the loosening and subsequent loss of teeth. Periodontitis is caused by microorganisms that adhere to and grow on the tooth's surfaces, along with an overly aggressive immune response against these microorganisms. A diagnosis of periodontitis is established by inspecting the soft gum tissues around the teeth with a probe (i.e. a clinical exam) and by evaluating the patient's x-ray films (i.e. a radiographic exam), to determine the amount of bone loss around the teeth. Specialists in the treatment of periodontitis are periodontists; their field is known as "periodontology" or "periodontics". The word "periodontitis" comes from peri ("around"), odont ("tooth") and -itis ("inflammation"). Contents [hide] * 1 Classification o 1.1 Extent o 1.2 Severity * 2 Signs and symptoms o 2.1 Effects outside the mouth * 3 Causes * 4 Prevention * 5 Management o 5.1 Initial therapy o 5.2 Reevaluation o 5.3 Surgery o 5.4 Maintenance o 5.5 Alternative treatments * 6 Prognosis * 7 Epidemiology * 8 In other animals * 9 See also * 10 Further reading * 11 Footnotes * 12 External links  Classification The 1999 classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions listed seven major categories of periodontal diseases, of which the last six are termed destructive periodontal disease because they are essentially irreversible. The seven categories are as follows: 1. Gingivitis 2. Chronic periodontitis 3. Aggressive periodontitis 4. Periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic disease 5. Necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis/periodontitis 6. Abscesses of the periodontium 7. Combined periodontic-endodontic lesions Moreover, terminology expressing both the extent and severity of periodontal diseases are appended to the terms above to denote the specific diagnosis of a particular patient or group of patients.  Extent The extent of disease refers to the proportion of the dentition affected by the disease in terms of percentage of sites. Sites are defined as the positions at which probing measurements are taken around each tooth and, generally, six probing sites around each tooth are recorded, as follows: 1. mesiobuccal 2. mid-buccal 3. distobuccal 4. mesiolingual 5. mid-lingual 6. distolingual If up to 30% of sites in the mouth are affected, the manifestation is classification as localized; for more than 30%, the term generalized is used.  Severity The severity of disease refers to the amount of periodontal ligament fibers that have been lost, termed clinical attachment loss. According to the American Academy of Periodontology, the classification of severity is as follows: * Mild: 1â€“2 mm of attachment loss * Moderate: 3â€“4 mm of attachment loss * Severe: â‰¥ 5 mm of attachment loss  Signs
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Prosthodontic Associates of South Florida
2601 S Bayshore Dr, Miami, FL Prosthodontists & Denture Centers, Dentists, Orthodontists, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery
Galloway Dental Care
7755 100 SW 87th Ave, Miami, FL Implant Dentistry, Dentists, Prosthodontists & Denture Centers, Orthodontists, Dental Hygienists, Teeth Whitening Products & Services, Dental Clinics, Cosmetic Dentistry, ClinicsServices
2375 SW 27th Ave, Miami, FL Cosmetic Dentistry, Dental Hygienists, Dentists, Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery, Prosthodontists & Denture Centers, Periodontists, Teeth Whitening Products & Services, Endodontists, Physicians & Surgeons, Oral Surgery
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